Migration factors

The migration experience is stressful, and these stressors can contribute to tension within the family, as all family members adjust to life in a new country and a new culture which is strongly characterised by individualism. Migration and settlement factors include:

  • Pre-migration experience including torture, trauma and separation of extended family
  • Migration and acculturative stress
  • Displaced sense of belonging and cultural identity
  • Racism and discrimination – perceived or experienced
  • Intergenerational and bicultural tension and conflict
  • Low English language proficiency – communication and language barriers
  • Poor knowledge of local systems and local services available
  • Loss or lack of extended family and social community supports
  • Poor settlement experience in period after arrival in new country
  • Inability to secure employment
  • Poor knowledge of employment services, employment opportunities
  • Socioeconomic disadvantage
  • Issues associated with domestic violence such as alcohol abuse, mental illness and in some families, acceptance of physical violence towards women
  • Lack of information about acceptable family practices