Romans and Greeks

Byzantine mosaic map of 6th century Jerusalem found under the floor of St George's Church in Madaba, Jordan.
Byzantine mosaic map of 6th century Jerusalem found under the floor of St George's Church in Madaba, Jordan. Source: David Bjorgen [GFDL, CC-BY-SA-3.0], via Wikimedia Commons

The Byzantine Empire (also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire) ruled from the Balkans to the Euphrates and was clearly defined by Christianity. The Middle East underwent a long lasting period of strong Christian and Greek influence under the Byzantines and many religious rifts were created between the doctrines dictated by the Empire’s headquarters in Constantinople and believers in many parts of the Middle East.